Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2011
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
A reclassification has been made to the December 31, 2010 and 2009 condensed consolidated statement of operations to conform to the 2011 presentation. Net service revenue and cost of service revenue have been decreased by $3.5 million and $2.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, related to fees the Company collects and subsequently pays to nursing homes primarily for room and board services provided to the Company's hospice patients.
A reclassification has been made to the December 31, 2010 condensed consolidated balance sheets to reclassify $116,000 into other receivables. The amount was previously recorded in patients accounts receivable; however, the transactions are not specifically related to patient claims. This reclassification had no affect on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("US GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported revenue and expenses during the reported period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include all subsidiaries and entities controlled by the Company. Control is defined by the Company as ownership of a majority of the voting interest of an entity. The consolidated financial statements include entities in which the Company has the obligation to absorb losses of the entities or the right to receive benefits from the entities and generally has voting control over the entities or both, as a result of ownership, contractual or other financial interests in the entities. Third party equity interests in the consolidated joint ventures are reflected as noncontrolling interests in the Company's consolidated financial statements.
The following table summarizes the percentage of net service revenue earned by type of ownership or relationship the Company had with the operating entity for the periods presented:
All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Business combinations accounted for as purchases have been included in the consolidated financial statements from the respective dates of acquisition.
The following discussion describes the Company's consolidation policy with respect to its various ventures excluding wholly owned subsidiaries:
Equity Joint Ventures
The Company's joint ventures are structured as limited liability companies in which the Company typically owns a majority equity interest ranging from 51% to 90%. Each member of all but one of the Company's equity joint ventures participates in profits and losses in proportion to their equity interests. The Company has one joint venture partner whose participation in losses is limited. The Company consolidates these entities as the Company has the obligation to absorb losses of the entities and the right to receive benefits from the entities and generally has voting control over the entities.
License Leasing Arrangements
The Company, through wholly owned subsidiaries, leases home health licenses necessary to operate certain of its home nursing agencies. As with wholly owned subsidiaries, the Company owns 100% of the equity of these entities and consolidates them based on such ownership, as well as the Company's obligation to absorb losses of the entities and the right to receive benefits from the entities.
The Company has various management services agreements under which the Company manages certain operations of agencies and facilities. The Company does not consolidate these agencies or facilities, as the Company does not have an ownership interest and does not have an obligation to absorb losses of the entities or the right to receive the benefits from the entities.
The Company reports net service revenue at the estimated net realizable amount due from Medicare, Medicaid, commercial insurance, managed care payors, patients and others for services rendered. All payors contribute to both the home-based services and facility-based services.
The following table sets forth the percentage of net service revenue earned by category of payor for the years ending December 31:
The percentage of net service revenue contributed from each reporting segment was as follows for the years ending December 31:
Home Nursing Services. The Company's home nursing Medicare patients are classified into one of 153 home health resource groups prior to receiving services. Based on this home health resource group, the Company is entitled to receive a standard prospective Medicare payment for delivering care over a 60-day period referred to as an episode. The Company recognizes revenue based on the number of days elapsed during an episode of care within the reporting period.
Final payments from Medicare may reflect one of four retroactive adjustments to ensure the adequacy and effectiveness of the total reimbursement: (a) an outlier payment if the patient's care was unusually costly; (b) a low utilization adjustment if the number of visits was fewer than five; (c) a partial payment if the patient transferred to another provider before completing the episode; or (d) a payment adjustment based upon the level of therapy services required in the population base. Management estimates the impact of these payment adjustments based on historical experience and records this estimate during the period the services are rendered. The Company's payment is also adjusted for geographic wage differences. In calculating the Company's reported net service revenue from home nursing services, the Company adjusts the prospective Medicare payments by an estimate of the adjustments. The adjustments are calculated using a historical average of prior adjustments.
Hospice Services. The Company is paid by Medicare under a per diem payment system. The Company receives one of four predetermined daily or hourly rates based upon the level of care the Company furnished. The Company records net service revenue from hospice services based on the daily or hourly rate and recognizes revenue as hospice services are provided.
Hospice payments are also subject to an inpatient cap and an overall payment cap. Inpatient cap relates to individual programs receiving more than 20% of its total Medicare reimbursement from inpatient care services and the overall payment cap relates to individual programs receiving reimbursements in excess of a "cap amount," calculated by multiplying the number of beneficiaries during the period by a statutory amount that is indexed for inflation. The determination for each cap is made annually based on the 12-month period ending on October 31 of each year. The Company monitors its limits on a provider-by-provider basis. The Company has not received notification that any of its hospices have exceeded the cap on inpatient care services or overall payments during 2010 or 2011 to date.
Long-Term Acute Care Services. The Company is reimbursed by Medicare for services provided under the long-term acute care hospital ("LTACH") prospective payment system, which was implemented on October 1, 2002. Each patient is assigned a long-term care diagnosis-related group. The Company is paid a predetermined fixed amount intended to reflect the average cost of treating a Medicare patient classified in that particular long-term care diagnosis-related group. For selected patients, the amount may be further adjusted based on length of stay and facility-specific costs, as well as in instances where a patient is discharged and subsequently re-admitted, among other factors. The Company calculates the adjustment based on a historical average of these types of adjustments for claims paid. Similar to other Medicare prospective payment systems, the rate is also adjusted for geographic wage differences. Revenue is recognized for the Company's LTACHs as services are provided.
Medicaid, managed care and other payors
The Company's Medicaid reimbursement is based on a predetermined fee schedule applied to each service provided. Therefore, revenue is recognized for Medicaid services as services are provided based on this fee schedule. The Company's managed care and other payors reimburse the Company in a manner similar to either Medicare or Medicaid. Accordingly, the Company recognizes revenue from managed care and other payors in the same manner as the Company recognizes revenue from Medicare or Medicaid.
The Company records management services revenue as services are provided in accordance with the various management services agreements to which the Company is a party. As described in the agreements, the Company provides billing, management and other consulting services suited to and designed for the efficient operation of the applicable home nursing agency or inpatient rehabilitation facility. The Company is responsible for the costs associated with the locations and personnel required for the provision of services. The Company is compensated based on a percentage of cash collections, a flat fee or is reimbursed for operating expenses and compensated based on a percentage of operating net income.
Accounts Receivable and Allowances for Uncollectible Accounts
The Company reports accounts receivable net of estimated allowances for uncollectible accounts and adjustments. Accounts receivable are uncollateralized and primarily consist of amounts due from Medicare, other third-party payors, and patients. To provide for accounts receivable that could become uncollectible in the future, the Company establishes an allowance for uncollectible accounts to reduce the carrying amount of such receivables to their estimated net realizable value. Because Medicare is the Company's primary payor, the credit risk associated with receivables from other payors is limited. The Company believes the credit risk associated with its Medicare accounts, which represent approximately 66% of its patient accounts receivable at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, is limited due to (i) the historical collection rate from Medicare and (ii) the fact that Medicare is a U.S. government payor. The Company does not believe that there are any other significant concentrations of receivables from any particular payor that would subject it to any significant credit risk in the collection of accounts receivable.
The amount of the provision for bad debts is based upon the Company's assessment of historical and expected net collections, business and economic conditions and trends in government reimbursement. Uncollectible accounts are written off when the Company has determined the account will not be collected.
A portion of the estimated Medicare prospective payment system reimbursement from each submitted home nursing episode is received in the form of a request for anticipated payment ("RAP"). The Company submits a RAP for 60% of the estimated reimbursement for the initial episode at the start of care. The full amount of the episode is billed after the episode has been completed. The RAP received for that particular episode is deducted from the final payment. If a final bill is not submitted within the greater of 120 days from the start of the episode, or 60 days from the date the RAP was paid, any RAPs received for that episode will be recouped by Medicare from any other Medicare claims in process for that particular provider. The RAP and final claim must then be resubmitted. For subsequent episodes of care contiguous with the first episode for a particular patient, the Company submits a RAP for 50% instead of 60% of the estimated reimbursement.
The Company's Medicare population is paid at a prospectively set amount that can be determined at the time services are rendered. The Company's Medicaid reimbursement is based on a predetermined fee schedule applied to each individual service we provide. The Company's managed care contracts are structured similar to either the Medicare or Medicaid payment methodologies. Because of its payor mix, the Company is able to calculate our actual amount due at the patient level and adjust the gross charges down to the actual amount at the time of billing. This negates the need to record an estimated contractual allowance when reporting net service revenue for each reporting period.
The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method. The assets acquired consist primarily of Medicare license, certificate of need and/or a noncompete agreement. The assets acquired and liabilities assumed, if any, are measured at fair value on the acquisition date using the appropriate valuation method. The noncontrolling interest associated with joint venture acquisitions is also measured and recorded at fair value as of the acquisition date. The residual purchase price is recorded as goodwill. The operations of the acquisitions are included in the consolidated financial statements from their respective dates of acquisition.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are reviewed annually for impairment or more frequently if circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying value of goodwill or an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value. The evaluation of impairment involves comparing the current fair value of each of the Company's reporting units to their recorded value, including goodwill. Components of the Company's home-based services segment are generally represented by individual subsidiaries or joint ventures with individual licenses to conduct home care or hospice operations within geographic markets as limited by the terms of each license. The Company's homecare and hospice business represent two reporting units for the purposes of evaluating impairment. Components of the Company's facility-based services are represented by individual operating entities. For purposes of evaluating impairment, the Company aggregates these operating components.
The Company estimates the fair value of its identified reporting units using the discounted cash flow method and the market multiple analysis method. These valuations require management to make estimates and assumptions regarding industry economic factors and the profitability of future business strategies. Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the fair values of its reporting units are estimated. For each of the reporting units, the estimated fair value is determined based on a formula that considers 50% of the estimated value based on a multiple of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization plus 50% of the estimated value using recent sales of comparable facilities. A change in the weight assigned to each methodology would not have changed the conclusion that no impairment charge is necessary during the year ending December 31, 2011. The Company has not recognized goodwill impairment charges in 2011, 2010 or 2009.
Included in intangible assets, net, are definite-lived assets subject to amortization such as non-compete agreements. Amortization of definite-lived intangible assets is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets.
The Company also has indefinite-lived assets that are not subject to amortization expense such as trade names, certificates of need and licenses to conduct specific operations within geographic markets. The Company has concluded that trade names, certificates of need and licenses have indefinite lives, because there are no legal, regulatory, contractual, economic or other factors that would limit the useful life of these intangible assets and the Company intends to renew and operate the certificates of need, licenses and use these trade names indefinitely. The Company performs an annual impairment test on the trade names using the relief-from royalty method. Under this method, the fair value of the intangible asset is determined by calculating the present value of the after-tax cost savings associated with owning the trade names and, therefore, not having to pay royalties for its use for the remainder of its estimated useful lives. The certificates of need and licenses are tested annually for impairment using the cost approach. Under this method assumptions are made about the cost to replace the certificates of need.
Due to/from Governmental Entities
The Company's LTACHs are reimbursed for certain activities based on tentative rates. The amounts recorded in due to/from governmental entities on the Company's consolidated balance sheets relate to settled and open cost reports that are subject to the completion of audits and the issuance of final assessments. Final reimbursement is determined based on submission of annual cost reports and audits by the fiscal intermediary. Adjustments are accrued on an estimated basis in the period the related services were rendered and further adjusted as final settlements are determined. These adjustments are accounted for as changes in estimates. There have been no significant changes in estimates during the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.
Property, Building and Equipment
Property, building and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the individual assets. Estimated useful lives for buildings is 39 years and ranges from 3 to 10 years for transportation equipment and furniture and other equipment. The useful life for leasehold improvements is the lesser of the lease term or the expected life of the leasehold improvement. Routine repairs and maintenance are expensed when incurred.
Property, building and equipment is reviewed whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate possible impairment. There were no impairments recognized during the periods ended December 31, 2011, 2010 or 2009.
The following table describes the Company's components of property, building and equipment:
Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 was $6.6 million, $6.7 million and $4.8 million, respectively. The Company writes off assets that are fully depreciated and no longer in use.
The nonredeemable interest held by third parties in subsidiaries owned or controlled by the Company is reported on the consolidated balance sheets as noncontrolling interest as a component of stockholders' equity. Redeemable interest held by third parties in subsidiaries owned or controlled by the Company is reported on the consolidated balance sheets outside permanent equity. All noncontrolling interest reported in the consolidated statements of income reflects the respective interests in the income or loss after income taxes of the subsidiaries attributable to the other parties, the effect of which is removed from the net income available to LHC Group, Inc.
Stock-Based Employee Compensation
The Company grants restricted stock or restricted stock units to employees and members of its Board of Directors as a form of compensation. The expense for such awards is based on the grant date fair value of the award and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. See Note 7 to these consolidated financial statements.
Earnings Per Share
Basic per share information is computed by dividing the item by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the period, under the treasury stock method. Diluted per share information is computed by dividing the item by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding plus dilutive potential shares.
The following table sets forth shares used in the computation of basic and diluted per share information for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009:
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued new accounting guidance which changes the presentation of insurance claims and related insurance recoveries. The guidance clarifies that insurance recoveries on medical malpractice claims and other similar contingent liabilities should not be presented net of the related claim liability. The new guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2011 and is applied on a prospective basis. Included in other current assets at December 31, 2011 was $1.0 million for expected insurance recoveries.
In December 2010, FASB issued new accounting guidance related to the Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations. The guidance specifies that if a public entity presents comparative financial statements, the entity should disclose revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combinations that occurred during the current year had occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. The guidance also expands the supplemental pro forma disclosures to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination included in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. The guidance was effective for the Company January 1, 2011 and did not have a material effect on the Company's financial statements.
In July 2011, FASB issued new accounting guidance that requires certain health care entities to change the presentation of their statement of operations by reclassifying the provision for bad debts associated with patient service revenue from an operating expense to a separate line as a deduction from patient service revenue. The guidance also requires enhanced disclosure about the Company's policies for recognizing revenue and assessing bad debts. The guidance further requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures about changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company will adopt the new guidance prospectively in the first quarter of 2012. While the adoption is prospective, disclosure requirements will be applied retrospectively for the periods presented in the Company's filings subsequent to adoption. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new guidance to have a material effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef