Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Critical Accounting Policies
The Company’s most critical accounting policies relate to revenue recognition.
Net Service Revenue
Net service revenue from contracts with customers is recognized in the period the performance obligations are satisfied under the Company's contracts by transferring the requested services to patients in amounts that reflect the consideration to which is
expected to be received in exchange for providing patient care, which is the transaction price allocated to the services provided in accordance with Topic 606 and ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date (collectively, "ASC 606").
Net service revenue is recognized as performance obligations are satisfied, which can vary depending on the type of services provided. The performance obligation is the delivery of patient care in accordance with the requested services outlined in physicians' orders, which are based on specific goals for each patient.
The performance obligations are associated with contracts in duration of less than one year; therefore, the optional exemption provided by ASC 606 was elected resulting in the Company not being required to disclose the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied as of the end of the reporting period. The Company's unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied performance obligations are primarily completed when the patients are discharged and typically occur within days or weeks of the end of the period.
The Company determines the transaction price based on gross charges for services provided, reduced by estimates for explicit and implicit price concessions. Explicit price concessions include contractual adjustments provided to patients and third-party payors. Implicit price concessions include discounts provided to self-pay, uninsured patients or other payors, adjustments resulting from regulatory reviews, audits, billing reviews and other matters. Subsequent changes to the estimate of the transaction price are recorded as adjustments to net service revenue in the period of change. Subsequent changes that are determined to be the result of an adverse change in the patient's ability to pay (i.e. change in credit risk) are recorded as a provision for doubtful accounts within general and administrative expenses.
Explicit price concessions are recorded for the difference between our standard rates and the contracted rates to be realized from patients, third-party payors and others for services provided.
Implicit price concessions are recorded for self-pay, uninsured patients and other payors by major payor class based on historical collection experience and current economic conditions, representing the difference between amounts billed and amounts expected to be collected. The Company assesses the ability to collect for the healthcare services provided at the time of patient admission based on the verification of the patient's insurance coverage under Medicare, Medicaid, and other commercial or managed care insurance programs.
Amounts due from third-party payors, primarily commercial health insurers and government programs (Medicare and Medicaid), include variable consideration for retroactive revenue adjustments due to settlements of audits and reviews. The Company has determined estimates for price concessions related to regulatory reviews based on historical experience and success rates in the claim appeals and adjudication process. Revenue is recorded at amounts estimated to be realizable for services provided.
The following table sets forth the percentage of net service revenue earned by category of payor for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020:
  Three Months Ended  
 September 30,
Nine Months Ended 
 September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Home health:
Medicare 62.1  % 66.4  % 62.8  % 67.0  %
Managed Care, Commercial, and Other 37.9  33.6  37.2  33.0 
100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  %
Medicare 94.6  % 93.8  % 94.3  % 92.9  %
Managed Care, Commercial, and Other 5.4  6.2  5.7  7.1 
100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  %
Home and community-based services:
Medicaid 32.1  % 21.5  % 31.1  % 21.0  %
Managed Care, Commercial, and Other 67.9  78.5  68.9  79.0 
100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  %
Facility-based services:
Medicare 45.8  % 54.2  % 49.5  % 55.2  %
Managed Care, Commercial, and Other 54.2  45.8  50.5  44.8 
100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  %
Medicare 6.0  % 11.1  % 11.4  % 17.9  %
Managed Care, Commercial, and Other 94.0  88.9  88.6  82.1 
100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  % 100.0  %
The following describes the payment models in effect during the nine months ended September 30, 2021. Such payment models have been subject to temporary adjustments made by CMS in response to COVID-19 pandemic as described elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The 2% sequestration reduction adjustment was suspended for patient claims with dates of service that began May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021.
Home Health Services
The Company records revenue as services are provided under the Patient Driven Groupings Model ("PDGM"). For each 30-day period, the patient is classified into one of 432 home health resource groups prior to receiving services. Each 30-day period is placed into a subgroup falling under the following categories: (i) timing being early or late, (ii) admission source being community or institutional, (iii) one of 12 clinical groupings based on the patient's principal diagnosis, (iv) functional impairment level of low, medium, or high, and (v) a co-morbidity adjustment of none, low, or high based on the patient's secondary diagnoses.
Each 30-day period payment from Medicare reflects base payment adjustments for case-mix and geographic wage differences. In addition, payments may reflect one of three retroactive adjustments to the total reimbursement: (a) an outlier payment if the patient’s care was unusually costly; (b) a low utilization adjustment whereby the number of visits is dependent on the clinical grouping; and/or (c) a partial payment if the patient transferred to another provider or from another provider before completing the episode. The retroactive adjustments outlined above are recognized in net service revenue when the event causing the adjustment occurs and during the period in which the services are provided to the patient. The Company reviews these adjustments to ensure that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the retroactive adjustments is subsequently resolved. Net service revenue and related patient accounts receivable are recorded at amounts estimated to be realized from Medicare for services rendered.
The Company records revenue based upon the date of service at amounts equal to the estimated payment rates. The Company receives one of four predetermined daily rates based upon the level of care provided by the Company, which can be routine care, general inpatient care, continuous home care, and respite care. There are two separate payment rates for routine care: payment for the first 60 days of care and care beyond 60 days. In addition to the two routine rates, the Company may also receive a service intensity add-on ("SIA"). The SIA is based on visits made in the last seven days of life by a registered nurse or medical social worker for patients in a routine level of care.
The performance obligation is the delivery of hospice services to the patient, as determined by a physician, each day the patient is on hospice care.
Adjustments to Medicare revenue are made from regulatory reviews, audits, billing reviews and other matters. The Company estimates the impact of these adjustments based on our historical experience.
Hospice payments are subject to variable consideration through an inpatient cap and an overall Medicare payment cap. The inpatient cap relates to individual programs receiving more than 20% of their total Medicare reimbursement from inpatient care services, and the overall Medicare payment cap relates to individual programs receiving reimbursements in excess of a “cap amount,” determined by Medicare to be payment equal to 12 months of hospice care for the aggregate base of hospice patients, indexed for inflation. The determination for each cap is made annually based on the 12-month period ending on September 30 of each year. The Company monitors its limits on a provider-by-provider basis and records an estimate of its liability for reimbursements received in excess of the cap amount, if any, in the reporting period.
Facility-Based Services
Gross revenue is recorded as services are provided under the LTACH prospective payment system. Each patient is assigned a long-term care diagnosis-related group. The Company is paid a predetermined fixed amount intended to reflect the average cost of treating a Medicare LTACH patient classified in that particular long-term care diagnosis-related group. For selected LTACH patients, the amount may be further adjusted based on length-of-stay and facility-specific costs, as well as in instances where a patient is discharged and subsequently re-admitted, among other factors. The Company calculates the adjustment based on a historical average of these types of adjustments for LTACH claims paid. Similar to other Medicare prospective payment systems, the rate is also adjusted for geographic wage differences. Net service revenue adjustments resulting from reviews and audits of Medicare cost report settlements are considered implicit price concessions for LTACHs and are measured at expected value.
Non-Medicare Revenues
Other sources of net service revenue for all segments fall into Medicaid, managed care or other payors of the Company's services. Medicaid reimbursement is based on a predetermined fee schedule applied to each service provided. Therefore, revenue is recognized for Medicaid services as services are provided based on this fee schedule. The Company's managed care and other payors reimburse the Company based upon a predetermined fee schedule or an episodic basis, depending on the terms of the applicable contract. Accordingly, the Company recognizes revenue from managed care and other payors as services are provided, such costs are incurred, and estimates of expected payments are known for each different payor, thus the Company's revenue is recorded at the estimated transaction price.
Contingent Service Revenues
The HCI segment provides strategic health management services to Accountable Care Organizations ("ACOs") that have been approved to participate in the Medicare Shared Savings Program ("MSSP"). The HCI segment has service agreements with ACOs that provide for sharing of MSSP payments received by the ACO, if any. ACOs are legal entities that contract with CMS to provide services to the Medicare fee-for-service population for a specified annual period with the goal of providing better care for the individual, improving health for populations and lowering costs. ACOs share savings with CMS to the extent that the actual costs of serving assigned beneficiaries are below certain trended benchmarks of such beneficiaries and certain quality performance measures are achieved. The generation of shared savings is the performance obligation of each ACO, which only become certain upon the final issuance of unembargoed calculations by CMS, generally in the third quarter of each year. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded in its HCI segment $12.1 million and $9.6 million, respectively, related to 2020 and 2019 ACO respective service periods, as certain ACOs served by the HCI segment received a MSSP payment from CMS confirming the performance obligation has been met.
Patient Accounts Receivable
The Company reports patient accounts receivable from services rendered at their estimated transaction price, which includes price concessions based on the amounts expected from payors. The Company's patient accounts receivable is uncollateralized and primarily consist of amounts due from Medicare, Medicaid, other third-party payors, and to a lesser degree patients. The credit risk from other payors is limited due to the significance of Medicare as the primary payor. The Company believes the credit risk associated with its Medicare accounts is limited due to (i) the historical collection rate from Medicare and (ii) the fact that Medicare is a U.S. government payor. The Company does not believe that there are any other significant concentrations from any particular payor that would subject it to any significant credit risk in the collection of patient accounts receivable.
Earnings Per Share
Basic per share information is computed by dividing the relevant amounts from the condensed consolidated statements of income by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the period, under the treasury stock method. Diluted per share information is also computed using the treasury stock method, by dividing the relevant amounts from the condensed consolidated statements of income by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding plus potentially dilutive shares.
The following table sets forth shares used in the computation of basic and diluted per share information and, with respect to the data provided for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 (amounts in thousands):  
  Three Months Ended  
 September 30,
Nine Months Ended 
 September 30,
  2021 2020 2021 2020
Weighted average number of shares outstanding for basic per share calculation 31,238  31,121  31,205  31,080 
Effect of dilutive potential shares:
Nonvested stock 196  290  217  254 
Adjusted weighted average shares for diluted per share calculation 31,434  31,411  31,422  31,334 
Anti-dilutive shares —  118 

Assets Held for Sale

As of December 31, 2020, the Company's assets held for sale was $1.9 million, which consisted of one hospice facility in Knoxville, Tennessee. The Company sold the property during the third quarter of 2021 for $3.2 million. The gain on the sale of the property of $1.2 million was recorded in general and administrative expenses in our condensed consolidated statements of income.


During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company invested $10.0 million and became a minority owner in a healthcare analytics company and invested $0.1 million in an investment fund focused on minority-owned businesses, which were recorded in other assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. These investments were accounted for under the cost method of accounting as the Company does not have the ability to exercise significant influence in connection with its minority ownership positions.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifications to accounting for income taxes, which removes certain exceptions to the general principles of Topic 740 and adds guidance to reduce complexity in accounting for income taxes. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2021. The adoption of the new guidance did not have a material impact to the Company.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by the transition away from reference rates expected to be discontinued to alternative reference rates. The pronouncement is effective immediately and may be applied prospectively to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into on or before December 31, 2022. The adoption of the new guidance did not have an effect on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.